Asset owners spend significant monies each year on the construction of new and the maintenance of existing infrastructure. More than ever, these funds can be difficult to procure and budget. The owners include, both municipal and industrial entities and funds are limited in most cases, therefore, asset service life is very important to all parties.
In the mid-1990s, the US Navy’s technical community, led by Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), recognized existing coatings used to protect the inside of ships’ tanks were failing on average 5-8 years after application. The high cost to blast and recoat over 11,000 tanks every 5-8 years, not counting submarines and aircraft carriers, was prohibitive. To address this issue, the Navy conducted a study to analyze the problem and decided to replace these legacy coatings with high solid epoxy coatings.1
Oil field operating company’s (1) flowline network in North and West Kuwait (NWK) has over 3000 wells connected through 6” carbon steel pipelines flowing from wellhead to the nearest Gathering Center (GC). Untreated wet crude is transported through the flowlines to GC’s directly or passing through the Remote Headers and Manifold (RHM) to GCs. In RHM, mixing of the wet crude takes place before it is sent to GC’s via transfer lines for further separation. The flowlines are laid aboveground except at road crossings where they are buried.
Caustic corrosion is sometimes referred to as “caustic attack or “caustic gouging.” Corrosion of this type may result from internally fouled heat transfer surfaces and the presence of sodium hydroxide in the boiler water; and concentrated solutions of alkali where the normal washing of the tube metal ID is restricted after Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB), i.e., when the steam bubble release exceeds the rinsing rate.
Scale and corrosion inhibitors are commonly used in many oil and gas production systems to prevent inorganic deposition and to protect asset integrity. Scale inhibitor products are based on organic compounds with phosphate or carboxylic functional groups such as amino phosphonates, phosphate esters, phosphino polymers, polycarboxylate and polysulfonates,1 as shown in Figure 1. These anionic groups have strong affinity to alkaline earth cations and can adsorb on the active growth sites of scale crystal (Figure 2), resulting in stopping or delaying the scale formation process.
Convolutional deep neural networks are one of the main machine learning techniques applied to computer vision and object recognition tasks. Currently, they are very popular due to their proven effectiveness in solving image classification tasks and their significant theoretical and practical importance to the advancement of the deep learning field. Examples of successful image classification networks developed are AlexNet, VGG, and GoogLeNet.1,2,3
The electrical conductivity of the electrolyte is one of the key parameters in the electromechanics of corrosion. Highly conductive electrolytes will permit more current and increase corrosion rates. Conversely, resistive electrolytes will enable less current to flow until the necessary conditions for corrosion are no longer satisfied or slowed.
The concrete biological shields (CBSs) of light water reactors are affected by neutron and gamma irradiation at high radiation doses, resulting in the degradation of the concrete’s material properties. Several studies in the literature focused on evaluating both the expansion of aggregate-forming minerals and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. Modeling efforts have been carried out to predict the
radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) and damage using different numerical methods such as the finite element method or fast-Fourier transform (FFT).
Integrity management of corrosion under insulation (CUI) has historically and continues to be one of the biggest corrosion related challenges within the oil & gas, maritime, chemical and petrochemical industries.2 Corrosion of piping, associated flanges, pressure vessels and structural components from CUI is a commonly found phenomenon and if left undetected or not stringently managed can result in catastrophic leaks or explosions, equipment failure and periods of prolonged downtime due to repair or replacement. It is estimated around 40% to 60% of an operator’s pipeline maintenance budget is a result of CUI.3
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the current advancements of monitoring the integrity level of the processing facilities using means of Integrity Operating Window (IOW) program. In our company, integrity and material & corrosion departments across the upstream and downstream businesses successfully implemented a well oriented and constructive IOW programs to manage the corrosion risks and monitor the integrity level of the capital assets and proactively assess the situation to prevent loss of primary containment. The technology that sets behind this success is the digitalized approach that gathers information from process, operations, lab services and inspection programs and converts them all into a high-level real-time tracking system that asses the current status of corrosion threats and integrity level.
Pipeline integrity management and practices have been systemized through standards(1), and one important aspect in integrity management is corrosion monitoring. Corrosion monitoring by using permanently installed equipment has increased in the past years(2). By using permanently installed ultrasound transducer (UT) sensors and automating signal processing and communication, a more costefficient corrosion management program can be obtained. Ultrasound techniques have been developed to complement traditional inspection with monitoring to improve cost efficiency of pipeline integrity management.
Production of oil and gas is well known to cause potential corrosion issues due to the CO2 content in the well stream. Carbon steel is widely used for production facilities as e.g. flowlines and manifolds, however, aging of the reservoir increases the number of corrosive agents, such as e.g. CO2, which are known to cause high corrosion rates in carbon steel. Therefore, carbon steel piping is often being replaced with super duplex stainless steel due to its high strength, excellent toughness and good corrosion resistance. Replacing carbon steel with super duplex has been conducted on several mature offshore oilfields in the European North Sea region.