In the mid-1990s, the US Navy’s technical community, led by Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), recognized existing coatings used to protect the inside of ships’ tanks were failing on average 5-8 years after application. The high cost to blast and recoat over 11,000 tanks every 5-8 years, not counting submarines and aircraft carriers, was prohibitive. To address this issue, the Navy conducted a study to analyze the problem and decided to replace these legacy coatings with high solid epoxy coatings.1
Scale and corrosion inhibitors are commonly used in many oil and gas production systems to prevent inorganic deposition and to protect asset integrity. Scale inhibitor products are based on organic compounds with phosphate or carboxylic functional groups such as amino phosphonates, phosphate esters, phosphino polymers, polycarboxylate and polysulfonates,1 as shown in Figure 1. These anionic groups have strong affinity to alkaline earth cations and can adsorb on the active growth sites of scale crystal (Figure 2), resulting in stopping or delaying the scale formation process.
Integrity management of corrosion under insulation (CUI) has historically and continues to be one of the biggest corrosion related challenges within the oil & gas, maritime, chemical and petrochemical industries.2 Corrosion of piping, associated flanges, pressure vessels and structural components from CUI is a commonly found phenomenon and if left undetected or not stringently managed can result in catastrophic leaks or explosions, equipment failure and periods of prolonged downtime due to repair or replacement. It is estimated around 40% to 60% of an operator’s pipeline maintenance budget is a result of CUI.3