This document discusses the issues to be taken into consideration with respect to accounting for corrosion on steel piles in non-marine applications. The rate of corrosion, design life and methods of corrosion control are discussed in a manner to provide the reader with guidance as to how to proceed with determining these factors. This standard is applicable to pipe piles, sheet piles, H piles, and other steel piles.
Sustaining long-term leak-free operation of aboveground storage tank (AST) bottoms is an extremely important goal of all AST owners and operators. Mitigation of corrosion on the external side of on-grade carbon steel tank bottoms is a principal element necessary to achieve this goal.
This standard provides a comprehensive compilation of corrosion mitigation considerations, practices, and procedures for AST bottoms. It is applicable from tank construction through long-term integrity management and maintenance processes. It presents supplements and alternatives to cathodic protection (CP). A broad section on vapor corrosion inhibitor (VCI) practices and procedures for mitigation of external tank bottom corrosion is included.
This AMPP standard practice presents guidelines and minimum requirements for citric acid based passivation of marine storage tanks to identify good cleaning practices and improve corrosion resistance. This standard is intended for use by shipboard personnel, ship owning organizations, commodity owners, tank readiness surveyors, chemical producing organizations, ship surveyors and other stake holders.
Carbon and low-alloy steels in plate form and their welded products may be susceptible to one or more forms of environmental cracking when exposed to wet H2S service conditions. These include, for example, (1) sulfide stress cracking (SSC) of hard zones and welds; (2) hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) in the parent metal; and (3) stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) in the region adjacent to welds of nominally acceptable hardness. Extensive work has been conducted over many years to understand various fundamental and applied aspects of these phenomena. Experiences in refinery wet H2S operations have directed particular attention to understanding SOHIC and the various metallurgical and environmental parameters that govern its occurrence.
This standard was prepared to provide a test method for consistent evaluation of pipeline and pressure vessel steels to SOHIC caused by hydrogen absorption from aqueous sulfide corrosion. The test conditions are not designed to simulate any specific service environment. The test is intended to evaluate resistance to SOHIC only, and not to other adverse effects of sour environments such as sulfide stress cracking (SSC), pitting, or mass loss from corrosion.
California Water Service (Cal Water) has had a team dedicated to the maintenance of its water tank infrastructure since the 1970s. The Team faces significant challenges as it strives to maintain the reliability of more than 450 water tanks throughout the State of California. Some of these challenges include tighter State regulations, increased visibility from the public, limited resources, aging infrastructure, and an aging workforce that will take their valuable institutional knowledge into retirement with them.
Corrosion has long been recognized as an extremely costly naturally occurring phenomenon that can be controlled through the proper application of corrosion prevention and control methods protecting public safety, extending the service life of assets and preventing damage to property and the environment. The landmark Cost of Corrosion Study published by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration estimated that corrosion costs were approximately 3.1% of the nation’s GDP. Within the study, several key sectors of the US economy were studied. This paper is focused on one of those areas – the corrosion risks associated with storage tanks that contain hazardous materials. The study determined that the annual direct cost of corrosion for above ground hazardous material storage tanks (ASTs) in the US was ~$4.5 billion.
It is safe to say that water towers have become a predominant location for the placement of cellular telecommunications equipment. Their height and design style make them a “natural” consideration for what the industry calls them, macro sites. And when one carrier locates on a tower you can be sure that others will soon follow.