This AMPP standard practice presents guidelines and minimum requirements for citric acid based passivation of marine storage tanks to identify good cleaning practices and improve corrosion resistance. This standard is intended for use by shipboard personnel, ship owning organizations, commodity owners, tank readiness surveyors, chemical producing organizations, ship surveyors and other stake holders.
Note: This document was originally published with errors in Table A.16, page 3-32. These identified errors are corrected. Errata sheet is included.
NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of carbon and low-alloy steels, corrosion-resistant alloys, and other alloys for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments, whose failure could pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the equipment itself.
The Wafra Joint Operation (WJO) Oilfield is located in the central-west part of the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone. The Wafra oilfield reserves were first discovered and wells drilled in 1954. This field produces two types of crude oil, Ratawi (light oil) and Eocene (heavy oil), with average water cut of 8085%. During operation, the production wells produce the oil emulsion through mostly coated flowlines to sub-centres (SC) where the sour oil, water and gas are separated. The facility has two gathering fields; Eocene and Ratawi. Eocene has 2 phase separation, whilst Ratawi has 3 phase separation. The sour gas is either flared or flows to the Main Power Generation Plant, whilst the oil is processed to the Main Gathering Center (MGC). The produced waters (PW) are routed to the Pressure Maintenance Plant (PMP).
This paper gives an update on the latest developments of the new generation of waterborne Polyurethane Topcoats (PU topcoats) for flooring which were presented during the annual SSPC meeting October 2003. Topcoats are commonly used in the construction industry over functional floor coatings or as sealers for concrete.
Carbon steel is the main construction material in HYDROFLUORIC ACID (HF) alkylation units. Carbon Steel has good corrosion resistance to anhydrous HF (AHF) below 160 degrees fahrenheit (71 C). The corrosion resistance is due to the formation of an inorganic iron fluoride scale on the carbon steel surface that protects the steel from futher corrosion. The presence of an adherent and continuous scale is essential in keeping the corrosion rate at a minimum.
The corrosion profession, and the certified professionals who work in the industry, are committed to protecting people, assets and the environment from the effects of corrosion. Those tasked with delivering the technical expertise to society must conduct their work with the knowledge and understanding of the ethical principles expected and required of those professionals.
The NACE International Code of Ethics is discussed in conjunction with case studies and features real-life ethical violations of the NACE International Institute attestations. Frameworks for making ethical decisions are reviewed in this course along with the factors in the corrosion industry that can lead to unethical behavior.
The course is an online, self-paced course which should take no longer than 1.5 to 2 hours to complete. After you have purchased the course in the store, log into your AMPP profile and select “Online Courses” to begin the ethics course.
Purchase of this course includes a one-year subscription and is non-refundable. Students will have access to all course materials for a period of one year from the date of registration. All course work must be completed during this time period. Extensions or transfers cannot be granted.
Section 1 | Introduction
Section 2 | Professional Ethics
Section 3 | Factors that Lead to Unethical Decision Making
Section 4 | Types of Unethical Behavior
Section 5 | A Framework for Ethical Decision Making
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) linings are used worldwide to prevent the corrosion and deterioration of storage tank bottoms in petroleum, petrochemical, and other services. Experience has shown that the useful life of an FRP lining may exceed 25 years. API Standard 653 permits a minimum remaining thickness of the tank bottom plate to be 1.25 mm (0.050 in) when lined with FRP compared to a thickness of 2.5 mm (0.10 in) if unlined or lined with a nonreinforced coating system and not equipped with a tank bottom leak detection system.
HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) is commercially available in 48% and 70% solutions. Commercial anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) contains less than 400 parts per million by weight (<400 wt ppm) water. Although this report is intended as a guide for handling commercial HF and AHF, additional information is given to aid users of HF who encounter other concentrations.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the largest volume commodity chemical in use today.It plays some part in the production ofnearly all manufactured goods. One large use of concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst for refinery alkylationunits.Intheseunits,C3-C5olefinssuchaspropyleneorbutylenearereactedwithisobutanetoformgasoline-blendingcomponents such as isoheptane and isooctane.These gasoline-blending components are used to boost octane forautomobileandaviationfuels.
Most refineries have an alkylation unit that uses either hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulfuric acid as the alkylation catalyst.Thisstandarddealswithspentsulfuricacidassociatedwiththesulfuricacidalkylationprocessonly.