The Brazilian cost of corrosion was estimated at 3% of the GPD in 2018, that percentage is equivalent to approximately $US 49 billion, according to an ABRACO1 journal released in 20201. It is estimated that from this cost $US 19 billion could have been saved through anticorrosive actions. In another research conducted by the EPRI2 the results showed that at least 22% of corrosion costs could be avoided through adequate mitigating actions2.
Biofouling accumulation on a ship’s hull has a direct impact on fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and may pose a biosecurity risk due to the presence of non-indigenous, potentially invasive aquatic species.
The antifouling system (AFS) is designed to protect the underwater surfaces from biofouling accumulation. Underwater inspections (UWI) of ships are typically carried out to monitor and verify the condition of the underwater hull and the AFS.
Recipients of UWI reports are reliant on the quality of information provided to make adequate decisions relating to hull performance, AFS condition and performance, biofouling management and associated risk assessments. Consistent and good quality reporting is key to effective underwater hull condition record-keeping and management.
An energy company hired a contractor to remove and replace the linings of water box condensers during a maintenance shut down. This case history will give a summary of the scope of work, a review of the specification, a description of the work performed, an accounting of the in-process inspection, and a summary of lessons learned during the project.
The Wafra Joint Operation (WJO) Oilfield is located in the central-west part of the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone. The Wafra oilfield reserves were first discovered and wells drilled in 1954. This field produces two types of crude oil, Ratawi (light oil) and Eocene (heavy oil), with average water cut of 8085%. During operation, the production wells produce the oil emulsion through mostly coated flowlines to sub-centres (SC) where the sour oil, water and gas are separated. The facility has two gathering fields; Eocene and Ratawi. Eocene has 2 phase separation, whilst Ratawi has 3 phase separation. The sour gas is either flared or flows to the Main Power Generation Plant, whilst the oil is processed to the Main Gathering Center (MGC). The produced waters (PW) are routed to the Pressure Maintenance Plant (PMP).
This is a print-on-demand (POD) book that will be produced just for you in 2-5 days after your order. It should arrive at your door in about one to two weeks. However, due to supply chain and logistic challenges currently affecting the industry, it may take longer. Allow three weeks for international orders.
This greatly updated and expanded third edition of Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production is written for non-experts who have the responsibility for corrosion management of subsurface, surface, and subsea equipment used for producing and processing oil and natural gas.
The book provides an overview and reference on the different corrosion threats, the methods for controlling corrosion, and the establishment of a management system based on risk and continuous improvement.
The authors, Robert Franco and Tim Bieri, have distilled over 80 years of personal experience--as well as the experience from multiple reviewers and contributors--into one comprehensive reference.
Included are hundreds of photographs, figures, and tables to illustrate the practical aspects and essential theory of corrosion control and materials selection.
2020 NACE, 536 pages, 6 x 9" trim size, perfect bound, color
When WIT Inc. was asked to rehabilitate the Alta Vista Standpipe, the first order of business would be to conduct a comprehensive tank evaluation in order to determine the overall condition, and also, to compile an inventory of deficiencies, repairs and upgrade objectives so that the project manual for the bid phase would include all necessary work to bring the tank to current AWWA standards.
Inspection of coating applications is more efficient and effective by the use of electronic equipment, which can store, transmit, and populate inspection reports with data. Field collection of inspection data points by manual note taking is being replaced with instruments that can capture and record metal thickness, coating film thickness, surface profile depth, surface contamination, environmental conditions, gloss levels of coatings, and adhesive pull-off strength of coatings. Electronic collection of data produces more accurately and statistically complete information than manual collection.
The authors look toward the future of specifying coating projects starting with the traditional prescriptive, means-and-methods, coating formula-based specifications. The popular qualified product list (QPL) approach is presented along with its drawbacks. The design/build (DB) ideal and limitations of specifying only performance is presented.
High flow velocity can have negative impact on the integrity of the oil and gas production equipment. This negative impact can manifest by the reduction of Corrosion Inhibitor (CI) efficiency: the higher the flow velocity, the lower the CI efficiency. The negative impact can also manifest by the occurrence of liquid erosion corrosion phenomena.
Structures are made of different substrates and materials. In order to protect these structures from the impact of corrosion, virtually everything is coated with some combination of paints, lacquers, epoxies, and thermoplastics. Inspecting structures requires multiple types of tests including measuring the thickness of a wide variety of protective coatings. This paper will discuss flexible measurement devices and how the utilization of various probes provides the best measurement results for specific applications.
The Optically Active Pigmented (OAP) coatings inspection process was developed by NAVSEA around 2004 to increase the speed and accuracy of tank coatings inspections. In an OAP inspection, violet LED inspection lights illuminate special tank coatings that fluoresce to increase the contrast between coated and uncoated steel.