The market for protective linings in the oil and gas sector has evolved in the last 30 years, reflecting on both increased performance demands and productivity demands. This paper will review the successes seen with tank linings and the changes seen within the market (legislative, HSE and more aggressive conditions), later, via a case study it will elaborate how these have steered R&D in the development of the next generation of high-performance linings.
Finally, the relevance of the American Petroleum Guidance (API652 and 653) to establish their continued relevance in lining selection and inspection intervals will be reviewed along with the utilization of linings to support changing demands (increased life expectancy and inspection intervals).
State Departments of Transportation let contracts for cleaning and application of protective coatings for steel bridge structures, but often lack staff with the training and knowledge to properly address technical issues that may arise on the project. The department’s engineering and inspection staff may be very skilled at administering a wide variety of construction contracts but lack the experience necessary to deal with the unique issues that often arise on painting projects.
The San Mateo Bridge represents the largest application of thick film coatings for protection of a concrete highway bridge in the US to date. This challenging project was undertaken in order to provide a aggressive extension to the expected service life of the new concrete components of the widened bridge. This report provides a brief summary of the coating application process during construction followed by a report of a recent visual inspection performed at the five-year point in service.
The importance of moisture testing of concrete floors cannot be stressed enough. Moisture is a leading cause of coatings failures on concrete floors. There are many ways moisture can affect floor coatings on concrete. Moisture testing alone is not sufficient enough at detecting all of the potential problems. Inspecting a building prior to performing any tests will provide a much clearer picture of the potential problems moisture in both liquid and vapor form can pose.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the largest volume commodity chemical in use today.It plays some part in the production ofnearly all manufactured goods. One large use of concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst for refinery alkylationunits.Intheseunits,C3-C5olefinssuchaspropyleneorbutylenearereactedwithisobutanetoformgasoline-blendingcomponents such as isoheptane and isooctane.These gasoline-blending components are used to boost octane forautomobileandaviationfuels.
Most refineries have an alkylation unit that uses either hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulfuric acid as the alkylation catalyst.Thisstandarddealswithspentsulfuricacidassociatedwiththesulfuricacidalkylationprocessonly.