Four-point bend testing is used extensively in the oil and gas industry to evaluate resistance of metals to sulfide stress cracking and stress corrosion cracking. The face of the specimen to be tested is stressed in tension and the reverse face in compression. The test is carried out for a specified exposure period with the specimen held under constant displacement using compact loading jigs. The compact nature of the jigs enables testing of several specimens in the test vessel simultaneously. Despite the apparent simplicity of the test, there are many factors that can influence the test results. The purpose of this standard is to establish a reliable methodology for conducting the tests to enhance repeatability and reproducibility of test data. The results of the tests can then be used with greater confidence to rank the performance of metals, the relative aggressiveness of environments, and to provide a basis for qualifying metals for service application. As such, the standard will be of particular benefit to materials and corrosion engineers in the oil and gas sector and to test laboratories providing critical data.
Produced water recycling for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations has been an increasingly common practice to support oil and gas development in the Permian Basin. Aside from the economic benefits associated with reusing the water produced which is a byproduct of oil and gas operations, recycling reduces both the need for sourcing water (brackish or fresh) from the environment as well as the volume of produced water requiring disposal. Produced water ponds support successful recycling by providing temporary storage of recycled water and volume buffer for fracking. Raw produced water is usually treated in recycling facilities before being stored in the ponds.
Odor control systems are critical to handling and treating foul air in wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. However, odor control systems do not stop corrosion related to biogenic sulfide formation of sulfuric acid as some engineers would have you believe. Conversely if you have an odor problem you also typically have a corrosion problem, and each problem requires separate control strategies.
High performance protective coatings are often failing in the severe headspace environments of wastewater environments. These failures are attributed to many factors including glow permeability properties to resist H2S and other corrosive gasses present within these environments. Although the chemical and physical properties of coating systems can be determined in the lab, this is not the case for application variables and the effects of environmental factors.
Methodology to simulate actual oil and gas field condition in laboratory tests. A sulfide stress cracking test is carried out on 13% Cr stainless steel with various buffer solutions. Then, pH behavior was estimated. A suitable composition of the solution is proposed by using thermodynamic calculations.