Pyrolysis processes of post-consumer plastics are a promising chemical recycling route and a good alternative to disposal. Nevertheless, these processes are challenging for metallic materials since chlorine containing materials or biological components inside the feedstock can yield HCl and H2S, respectively, during cracking. In combination with high temperatures of the reactor zone metallic construction materials can be attacked by high-temperature corrosion.
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The Field Guide for Managing Iron Sulfide (Black Powder) within Pipelines or Processing Equipment offers practical guidance for corrosion control and operations personnel in managing black powder within their pipeline systems or processing equipment.
This book was written for new corrosion control professionals and operations personnel, who are based at production facilities. It provides straightforward, practical guidance regarding what is “black powder,” and why it may be a concern, field tests to be conducted, follow-up laboratory test that could be ordered, and an approach for using maintenance pigging, coupled with chemical treatments, to remove accumulations of “black powder.”
It begins with a discussion of what is black powder and identifies health and safety considerations associated with H2S and the presence of black powder, identifying why there may be a concern.
The Field Guide presents field and laboratory tests typically used to identify the presence of iron sulfide, and then discusses maintenance pigging and/or chemical treatments for removing such particulates. Several case studies are also presented.
2019 NACE, 6 x 9" trim size, color, perfect bound, 264 pages
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H2S scavengers (SC) are commonly injected into multiphase pipelines transporting oil, water, and gas when the H2S concentration is relatively low (ppm levels) but higher than the maximum allowable H2S concentration in systems located downstream, due to integrity, safety or tariff limitations. Under these situations, it is expected that the H2S scavenger injected in some points of the system (e.g., subsea) be capable of reducing the H2S concentration before reaching certain parts of the system (e.g., topsides). In this case, the H2S scavenger should be selected not only based on its capacity, but also on its kinetics at the expected field conditions.
AM brings significant benefits in better performance, inventory management, and lifecycle cost reduction to the Oil & Gas industry. Both manufacturers and users are working towards AM qualification and standardization in order to realize and sustain these benefits. Starting at the product level, the goal is to ensure the product is sound in its form, fit, and function, and free from macroscopic (surface, sub-surface, internal) anomalies deleterious to its performance. Product qualification is supported by a foundational metallurgical or AM material qualification.1
Odor control systems are critical to handling and treating foul air in wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. However, odor control systems do not stop corrosion related to biogenic sulfide formation of sulfuric acid as some engineers would have you believe. Conversely if you have an odor problem you also typically have a corrosion problem, and each problem requires separate control strategies.