AC Corrosion of Pipelines covers the essential topics related to AC corrosion of pipelines, a problem affecting the safety and reliability of underground pipelines. In addition to the basic principles of AC interference induced by adjacent AC power lines and other sources, the book details the adverse effects of the interference on collocated pipelines, including corrosion and pitting corrosion, coating degradation, deviating of cathodic protection potentials, and the ineffectiveness of cathodic protection systems. Moreover, effective management measures to this problem are discussed. It also covers the DC interference and DC corrosion of the pipelines, as compared to the AC corrosion phenomenon. The book, the first of its kind, provides a complete and comprehensive understanding to the phenomenon from both the fundamentals and the author's research experiences.
The reader can learn and understand the basics associated with AC corrosion. Moreover, the book provides solutions and industry practice to mitigate, control, and manage AC corrosion of pipelines. The reader can thus learn the appropriate solutions to the problem. Finally, the book also includes DC corrosion of pipelines, in addition to AC corrosion, another essential problem to the buried pipelines with the increasing development of HVDC power lines. All of them contribute to improved knowledge base and recommended solutions for the actual problem threating the integrity and safety of pipelines.
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e-book, AMPP 2021, 284 pages
Shale oil companies are currently building state-of-the-art gathering infrastructure to transport oil and natural gas from the wells through an oil gathering system to a central oil stabilization facility to eliminate truck traffic and condensate tank emissions. A portion of fracturing fluids and sand that returns to the surface (slickwater and proppant backflow) may accumulate in this new-built pipeline infrastructure and cause severe pitting corrosion. Also, paraffin and wax deposits may cause operational problems in various parts of the oil gathering system. In offshore production systems, production streams frequently contain organic/inorganic solids and water causing corrosion and wax buildup in subsea pipelines, which are unpiggable in many cases.
We propose a novel system for removing solids, wax, sludge, and other unwanted fluids causing corrosion and/or flow assurance issues in oil and gas gathering systems, including manifolds and unpiggable process lines. The system comprises one component that generate fluid batches at the inlet of the flowlines and a model-based controller component that determines the launch time of fluid batches such that the batches generated in the flowlines are merged into one batch in the gathering pipeline or production manifold. The controller simulates the fluid batches moving along the flowlines using a real-time simulation model and provides automatic control of the systems generating the fluid batches. The dose of corrosion or wax inhibitors is automatically adjusted to maintain a predetermined concentration of the chemical in response to a variation of the rate of water production in the well.
Scale-model test results and real-time simulations of system operation are presented. The stationary bed of solids formed in the production manifold and process lines is converted into a series of solids dunes that slowly move toward the separator. This effect dramatically reduces the likelihood of internal corrosion. Also, the risk of wax deposition reduces because the internal surface of the pipe is continuously flushed by hot water batches. This technology is applicable for existing and new-build pipeline infrastructure and virtually does not have limitations regarding the design of the oil or gas gathering system, operating pressure and temperature. As a result, the production manifold itself and unpiggable process lines are efficiently flushed with produced water.
The Jim Creek siphon is located in the Arapahoe National Forest in Winter Park, Colorado, elevation 9,000 feet. The siphon was constructed as part of the original Moffat Collection System in approximately 1935/1936, commencing operation in 1937. It is a 54-inch diameter steel pipeline that conveys Fraser River water from the Fraser Canal on the south side of the Jim Creek valley to the Jim Creek-Fraser Creek Canal on the north side of Jim Creek valley. The Jim Creek valley floor includes a significant wetlands complex with sensitive terraced beaver ponds, which require protection during any rehabilitation work.
The goal of this compilation is to educate the reader through experiences and observations from real-world applications and to provide tools for the identification and remediation of pipeline corrosion issues before failure. Pipelines have been used to transport fuels since the 19th century. While there is no clear consensus of the total number of pipeline miles in use throughout the world, most agree that the U.S. has over 2.5 million mi of energy pipelines. This book provide tools for the identification and remediation of pipeline corrosion issues before failure.
2018 NACE e-book
Effects of initial crack aspect ratio, pipeline diameter, wall thickness, and loading conditions on the crack shape development were investigated. A new methodology for fatigue crack growth assessment is demonstrated. The study provides a refinement for more accurate prediction of remaining service life for pipelines.