Cracking of concrete repair materials is a critical factor affecting the service life of a repaired structure. Cracks in repair materials provide a pathway for moisture to carry deleterious materials into the concrete and accelerate corrosion of imbedded reinforcement. Existing cracks can also fill with water and cause further crack propagation as well as accelerated deterioration due to freezing and thawing conditions.
The application of corrosion resistance alloys such as 25% Cr super duplex stainless steel (25Cr SDSS) has expanded in the oil & gas industry recently as new technologies made it feasible for Oil and Gas operators to invest in high sour and corrosive fields. 25Cr SDSS material is often used in critical applications such as piping, rotating equipment, coolers, and instrument components etc. SDSS materials are well known for the 50/50 austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) microstructure which provides the combination of corrosion resistance and high-performance mechanical properties.
This presentation will discuss current accelerated testing methods used to approve coatings used on wind tower foundations, towers and other related equipment. The presenter will discuss global coating standards used for system selection, and the presenter will provide potential system upgrades and efforts to allow for extending coating life expectancy to first major maintenance activity. Additional information on related experiences of other industries in environments such as onshore and offshore will be discussed.
In gas wells, where a low or unknown amount of the naturally occurring saline formation water is expected to be produced, tubing material selection relies on selecting a fixed dataset of input parameters and extrapolating to the entire well life. This is intended to represent the worst-case scenario; while this can be the case regarding pressure and temperature, the produced water composition as a function of time is less likely to be as reliable. This is because during production, gas can cause water evaporation, leading to a significant increase in the chloride ion concentration compared to the analyzed values – and hence, potentially an unsuitable material selected. To this end, it is important to: (a) ensure that the formation water composition analyzed is correct, (b) that this composition is reconciled to initial reservoir conditions and (c) calculate any evaporation/condensation effects in different sections of the well as a function of production forecasts. This makes it easier to establish operational envelopes that both prevent productivity impairment and provide appropriate thresholds of acceptability for the tubing material selected. This paper describes the methodology applied for tubing material selection for a high temperature-high pressure (HTHP) gas well in the North Sea.
The purpose of this technical committee report is to increase railcar industry awareness of nonvisible surface contamination (NVSC), its impact, and its removal before coating application to the railcar. For the purpose of this report, NVSC is defined as any substance that may affect coating performance and does not leave a visible deposit on a bare or previously coated carbon steel surface. This report discusses how NVSC may have a harmful effect on the performance and lifespan of a coating system. This report also identifies types of NVSC and methods for its removal.
While traditional cleaning solutions can be time consuming, costly and ineffective, dry ice blast cleaning provides a completely dry solution that cleans faster and more efficiently, while reducing downtime and supporting environmental initiatives. This presentation will discuss the basic concepts of dry ice cleaning. Participants will learn the benefits of the process, as well as, how it can benefit their production, improve quality, and support an environmentally responsible production environment.
Starting in the 1940’s, solution vinyl resin coatings were used extensively to protect steel structures in fluctuating immersion service from corrosion. However, these systems fell out of favor when more restrictive volatile organic compounds regulations were implemented in the 1990’s. Since then, traditional epoxy systems have become a workhorse in the protective coatings industry. Unfortunately, these materials tend to degrade in sunlight, and experience has revealed their service life to be suboptimal compared to legacy coatings systems such as vinyls
As a Central source for water distribution, emergency services, and communications transmission, the Penn Avenue Tower represents a focal point for the City of Richfield, Minnesota. The 1.5-million-gallon water tower is a multi-column elevated style tank located in a residential and commercial business area on shared property with the City’s No. 2 Fire Station. An engineering evaluation identified the need for complete replacement and maintenance repair of exterior and interior coating systems, along with accessory modifications.
All coating projects should be bid using plans and specifications tailored to the project. In this paper, we will examine the goals of the specifications, as well as some of the basic guidelines for their preparation and common language which should be included to ensure a clear presentation of the work to be performed. Also, we will describe the obligations of the design team that are implied by law in every contract.