Optimizing Equipment Availability through Structured Engineering Assessment

The recognized international codes, such as ASME [1], API[2], BS[3] provide design and fabrication guidelines for various equipment used in industries viz. pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. However, the fabrication standards do not address acceptability of the equipment on detection of any deterioration; once put in to the operation.
The engineering assessment becomes essential when flaws such as “leakage”, ‘metal loss’ or ‘linear indications’ are detected during routine inspections. Sometimes, observed damages or flaws, do not meet the definition criteria as per assessment steps given in the international standards of fitness for service. In order to asses such damages, a structured engineering approach based on experience and judgment would help in such situations.
Describing the structured engineering assessment approach, this paper discusses a case study on typical ‘hydrogenation reactor’ that displayed micro-level leakage. Until 2015, the reactor often leaked during service prior to the assessment. This approach using various NDT methods, microstructural examination and structured engineering analysis identified the problem of dilution of base metal with welding that was leading to inter dendritic corrosion at micro level. The structured engineering analysis paved the forward path by which the reactor could be operated without any unscheduled outages since then after providing improved welding procedure.

Product Number: MPWT19-14367
Author: Paresh Haribhakti, Ketan Upadhyaya
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Integrity Maintaining and Cost Saving Advanced CUI Detection Technique (PEC)

Product Number: MPWT19-14242
Author: Amro Hassanein, Ahmed Elsharkawi
Publication Date: 2019

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a major problem for petroleum and petrochemical process industries that affects the plant mechanical integrity and attacks assets. CUI can result in sudden and hazardous leaks (safety concern), and plant shutdowns with high losses of production (economical concern).
Traditional detecting methods of CUI to cut a window in thermal insulation used to inspect visually, to measure the thickness, and then return thermal insulation back, giving high chance for water and moisture ingress, accelerating CUI, moreover big amount of scaffolding erection along with thermal insulation removal required.
SHARQ (Eastern Petrochemical Company, one of SABIC companies) is pioneer to study CUI, evaluating many Non–Destructive techniques has proven Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) as the most effective technique in terms of integrity and cost optimization.
Considering all available techniques, all aspects studied, such as range of applications, features, and limitations, it is concluded and verified to meet our inspection plan strategy needs.
PEC does not require thermal insulation removal; optimize scaffolding erection, has a wide range of applications related to thickness, and temperature. PEC approved by international codes and standards (API) to meet RBI Meridium software requirements.
The validation study results show cost savings of more than 50% compared to traditional thickness measurement methodology, moreover it reduces EHSS (Environment, Health, Safety, and Security) negative impact reduces the probability of safety incidents due to reducing labor, man-hours, and eliminating many associated activities with potential hazard and risk.
PEC has high productivity, easily operated, and provides comprehensive and professional inspection report

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Techniques for Inspecting Wall Thickness Metal Loss of Pipelines under Nonmetallic Sleeves

Product Number: MPWT19-14377
Author: Hatim Alhamdan, Fadhel Al Asfoor, Aziz Rehman, Rashed Alhajri
Publication Date: 2019

Composite repairs have been applied to pipelines and piping systems for structural reinforcement after external corrosion. Such repairs may consist of glass or carbon fibers embedded in a matrix of epoxy. Typically, these repairs are hand applied using either wet lay-up systems or prefabricated rolls of composite sleeve. In some applications, pipeline continued corrosion growth under composite repairs were reported using Inline Inspection (ILI) which raises a concern about the integrity of the metallic piping under composite repairs. When continued corrosion is detected by ILI, a difficulty is typically faced due to the inability to measure pipeline remaining thickness under such repairs. To resolve this challenge, this paper will discuss multiple inspection and corrosion monitoring techniques for metal loss under composite repairs. To measure the pipeline wall thickness due to internal corrosion, one or more of the three (3) Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technologies namely; Dynamic Response Spectroscopy (DRS), Multi-skip Ultrasonic (MS-UT) and digital radiography were evaluated and found capable. To monitor for external corrosion, a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair would be the first inspection step. If the composite repair appears to be intact then the visual inspection would suffice and the repair should be acceptable to its design life. If the original defect is external corrosion and a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair shows damage to the composite repair then inspection to assess the integrity of the substrate must be used before permanently fixing the composite repair. For this scenario, digital radiography or MS-UT are recommended to assess the condition of the substrate

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Assessment of Cement-Lined Pipelines and Challenges

Product Number: MPWT19-14342
Author: Murtada H. Alsalman, Itoro L. Akrasi, Zakariya H. Alyacoub
Publication Date: 2019