High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are preferred for oil and gas pipelines due to their outstanding mechanical properties. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) has been a major problem for the application of HSLA carbon steel because of the wet H2S environment which commonly presents in oil and gas industry. Several techniques are applied to the study of SSC of steels, including constant load test with smooth specimens and DCB testing.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) saturated brines containing high levels of calcium are commonly encountered across the energy sector: from hydrocarbon recovery to the harvesting of geothermal energy and re-deposition of CO2 for permanent storage. These brines originate in deep underground reservoirs at elevated pressures and temperatures. Despite susceptibility to corrosive attack under these conditions, carbon steels are the preferred choice of pipeline materials for such processes, attributable to their low cost, availability and ease of manufacture.
The nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is currently stored in 131 single-shell tanks and 27 double-shell tanks (DSTs). When the primary liner in Tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) failed, the secondary liner became the principal barrier of the tank, and leaked waste interacted with the refractory foundation beneath the primary liner. The high caustic concentration of the tank waste could have reacted with the tank refractory, lowering the pH and leading to increased corrosion rates of the annulus tank steel. The extent of change would depend on the waste volume to surface area ratio and other factors.