Products tagged with 'pitting'

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Picture for Characterization of Stress-Corrosion-Cracking in Plutonium-Bearing Storage Containers
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Characterization of Stress-Corrosion-Cracking in Plutonium-Bearing Storage Containers

Product Number: 51324-20845-SG
Author: Emmanuel Perez; Roderick E. Fuentes; Michael J. Martínez-Rodríguez; Henry Ajo
Publication Date: 2024
The Integrated Surveillance Program, under the Department of Energy, is responsible for the periodic surveillance of storage containers containing plutonium-bearing materials. The container-package consist of a stainless-steel three-layered structure with a convenience can that confines the material, and seal-welded inner and outer cans designed to isolate the materials for up to 50 years with minimal surveillance. The inner-can represents the first layer of material containment, and it should not be breached. During monitoring, corrosion-pitting and suspected stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) has been identified in some of the inner cans near the weld regions due to the transport of chloride salts and water impurities into the space between the convenience can and the inner can. SCC through wall penetration would result in an undesired increased risk of leakage. An investigation is in progress to identify and characterize corrosion events in the inner-cans to determine the prevalence of corrosion features and the likelihood of a through-wall breach. This document presents a specimen where significant pitting corrosion and cracking was observed in and near the heat affected zone between the can and the lid. Characterization was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and 3D-tomography. Tomography was carried out using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) to mill into the surface of the specimen to map the subsurface topographies of pits and cracks. The study revealed the crack depth and secondary cracks that developed from cracks observed at the surface.
Corrosion Of Wrought And Cast Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo Alloys In High-Temperature Brines And CO2-Rich Supercritical Phases With Oxygen And Hydrogen Sulfide
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Corrosion Of Wrought And Cast Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo Alloys In High-Temperature Brines And CO2-Rich Supercritical Phases With Oxygen And Hydrogen Sulfide

Product Number: 51322-17882-SG
Author: Manuel Marya
Publication Date: 2022

Carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is part of decarbonization solutions to reduce green-house gas emissions, as exemplified by the growing number of capital expenditure projects worldwide.1-2 In CCUS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) is consecutively (1) captured at origin, such as power plants and natural gas production sites, (2) separated from other gases and impurities, (3) compressed, (4) transported through pipelines, and finally (5) injected into a storage site such as deleted hydrocarbon wells, saline aquafers, coal beds, underground caverns, or seawater.1,3 Since the 1970s, specifically the first commercial carbon dioxide flooding in the United States (known as SACROC), carbon dioxide sequestration has been largely discussed in the context of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), not in the newer context of Sustainability. Nonetheless, substantial experience has been drawn from EOR, including for the selection of the right and economical materials.4 As reflected by the literature, past materials test programs have rarely given any attention to downhole jewelry alloys compared to tubulars or surface-infrastructure alloys, and consequently the track records for such bar-stock alloys are either inexistent or not readily available. 5-7 This lack of apparent return-on-experience represents a knowledge gap against the prospect of a safe greenhouse gas control method; needless to say, it also justifies the requirements for reliable well integrity monitoring solutions in carbon dioxide sequestration wells.8-9  

Picture for Development of 27–7MO: An Improved Superaustenitic Stainless Steel With High Strength and Excellent Corrosion Resistance for Sour Service
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