Corrosion is defined as the degradation of a material or its properties due to a reaction with the environment and is one of the most common pipeline integrity threats for operators. External corrosion may be visually inspected during excavation; however, due to accessibility, additional non-destructive examination (NDE) methods must be utilized to identify the presence and severity of internal corrosion.
Understanding the chemistry and electrical properties of how corrosion occurs aids in mitigating the presence of corrosion, specifically internal corrosion.
One of the key factors affecting ship performance, particularly fuel consumption and associated GHG (Green House Gas) emissions, is the degree of biofouling on the immersed hull and propeller(s). Rates of biofouling accumulation vary considerably, depending on the suitability, age and physical condition of the coating system(s) applied to the hull, the voyaging, anchoring and lay up patterns of the ship, and the geographical regions where these take place.