The process of determining the fluid compatibility (FC) of elastomers and how compatibility affects material selection for downhole applications. Effects of completion fluids (Bromides and Formates) on elastomers. Elastomer samples were conditioned at temperatures from 175°F (80°C) to 380°F (193°C) for up to 3 weeks.
Coiled tubing is defined as a continuous tubular product that is used for oil and gas well interventions. Its popularity continues to grow due to its versatility and speed of operation. Though superior grades of metal alloys exist in terms of corrosion resistance, coiled tubing operations primarily employ high-strength low-alloy steels because of their availability, lower cost and weldability. The low-alloy steel can also be thermo-mechanically controlled to elicit specific material properties, such as yield strength and ductility. These coiled tubing steels are often introduced into potentially corrosive downhole conditions, therefore proper testing must be completed to ensure adequate corrosion protection prior to job execution. Downhole corrosive conditions often encountered include; oxygen saturated fluids, elevated temperatures, exposure to oxidizing agents, hydrochloric acid and highly concentrated brines. Often these fluids will be recirculated in a closed loop system, consistently re-exposing equipment to potentially damaging conditions. Frequently, these challenging conditions faced are tested individually with pressurized mass loss coupon testing at bottom hole conditions. However, due to a recent coiled tubing incident in which the coiled tubing pipe had completely parted downhole, the post-job incident investigation involving SEM and metallographic analysis revealed pitting corrosion throughout the tubing, despite the pre-job testing performed indicating adequate acid corrosion protection for the entirety of the job. A literature review indicated very little research was available involving the possible interaction of brine solutions and diluted acid on coiled tubing carbon steels. This paper aims to investigate the possible corrosive interactions between salt brines and inhibited acid blends at elevated temperatures on high grade coiled tubing coupon samples through metallographic examinations and mass loss tests in pressurized heated cells. Coiled tubing coupons will be exposed to a variety of acid blends diluted with a 10% brine (8% wt NaCl and 2% wt CaCl2) or fresh water to investigate the possibility of corrosion enhancement between saline fluids in a diluted acid system.
Unexpected brittle failures of UNS NO5500 drill string parts and non-magnetic drill collars have recently been observed in cases where the UNS NO5500 components were galvanically coupled to carbon steel in concentrated salt solutions at temperatures between ambient and higher than 373 K. Cracking occured preferable at locations with a tri-axial stress condition (roots of threads) and has been ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement.