Desalination is a process in which dissolved impurities are removed from water. Three processes commonly employed include: distillation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. This paper provides a general discussion of various desalination processes including advantages and disadvantages of each, performance comparisons, and problems encountered in the operation of the process. An in-depth discussion of fouling by mineral scales, colloidal matter, and metal hydroxides is also included. The role of the foulant control agent in treating a desalination system is also presented, Basic chemistry and efficacy of the individual scale inhibitors is summarized.
KEY WORDS: Antiscalant, Desalination, Dispersant, Distillation, Electrodialysis, Membranes, Reverse Osmosis, Scaling