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02223 Factors to Consider when Applying Oxidizing Biocides In the Field

Product Number: 51300-02223-SG
ISBN: 02223 2002 CP
Author: C.J. Nalepa, J.N. Howarth, and F.D. Azarnia
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Legionella pneumophila, the organism responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, is an ongoing health concern in recreational, industrial, and potable water systems. For example, Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks continue to be associated with hot tubs and spas, cooling towers, and potable hot water systems. Oxidizing biocides based on chlorine, bromine, and other chemistries are recognized as effective microbiological control agents. Many organizations within the last several years have issued standards that recommend the use of oxidizing biocides for minimizing the risk associated with such outbreaks. Although oxidizing biocides can be effective when applied properly, use of them alone cannot be construed as a guaranty of successful microbiological control. Indeed, many factors can adversely impact the performance of oxidizing biocides - the type of make-up water, system impurities, ancillary corrosion and deposit control agents, system metallurgy, system design, operational parameters, sunlight exposure, maintenance practices, etc. Some of these factors are within the control of the water treatment professional; others are not. One thing clear is that biocides must be stored and applied properly in order to achieve the optimum effect. The purpose of this paper is to discuss factors which influence the proper handling and application of oxidizing biocides in building water systems. Some of the factors discussed will include handling characteristics, reactions with common system impurities, compatibility with phosphonates, compatibility with biodispersants, long-term storage stability, and UV stability. Keywords: Oxidizing biocide, biocide application, heat stability, storage stability, UV stability, halogen demand, phosphonate, triazole, phosphonate reversion, biocide, stabilized bromine, stabilized bromine chloride, stabilized hypobromite, sodium bromide, activated sodium bromide, chlorine, bleach, sodium hypochlorite, BCDMH, Trichlor, Dichlor, DBDMH, BCMEH.
Legionella pneumophila, the organism responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, is an ongoing health concern in recreational, industrial, and potable water systems. For example, Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks continue to be associated with hot tubs and spas, cooling towers, and potable hot water systems. Oxidizing biocides based on chlorine, bromine, and other chemistries are recognized as effective microbiological control agents. Many organizations within the last several years have issued standards that recommend the use of oxidizing biocides for minimizing the risk associated with such outbreaks. Although oxidizing biocides can be effective when applied properly, use of them alone cannot be construed as a guaranty of successful microbiological control. Indeed, many factors can adversely impact the performance of oxidizing biocides - the type of make-up water, system impurities, ancillary corrosion and deposit control agents, system metallurgy, system design, operational parameters, sunlight exposure, maintenance practices, etc. Some of these factors are within the control of the water treatment professional; others are not. One thing clear is that biocides must be stored and applied properly in order to achieve the optimum effect. The purpose of this paper is to discuss factors which influence the proper handling and application of oxidizing biocides in building water systems. Some of the factors discussed will include handling characteristics, reactions with common system impurities, compatibility with phosphonates, compatibility with biodispersants, long-term storage stability, and UV stability. Keywords: Oxidizing biocide, biocide application, heat stability, storage stability, UV stability, halogen demand, phosphonate, triazole, phosphonate reversion, biocide, stabilized bromine, stabilized bromine chloride, stabilized hypobromite, sodium bromide, activated sodium bromide, chlorine, bleach, sodium hypochlorite, BCDMH, Trichlor, Dichlor, DBDMH, BCMEH.
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