This CorrCompilation series focuses primarily on equilibrium-formed scales, where an aqueous fluid changes from an unsaturated equilibrium state to a saturated and supersaturated state and then solids may start to form. These types of fouling minerals include alkaline earth salts, silicates, alkaline salts (NaCl), sulfides, and under specific circumstances, metal sulfide salts that form through equilibrium changes. While corrosion product scales are not the subject of this book, the importance of corrosion product layers to the deposition of other scales will be described.
Since this is a CorrCompilation and more than 90 copies of NACE papers are included, the work is published in four volumes. The editor, Wayne W. Frenier, FNACE, provides an extensive introduction to each volume, offering the reader a thorough mix of history, theory, and engineering techniques and methods for addressing scale.
Volume 1: Introduction to Equipment Subject to Inorganic Scale
Volume 2: Current Mechanisms for Understanding Inorganic Scale Formation and Deposition
Volume 3: Chemistry and Application of Scale Inhibitors
Volume 4: Alternative Methods of Scale Control
This volume, “Chemistry and Application of Scale Inhibitors,” will describe current scale inhibitor (SI) chemicals and theories of their modes of action. These chemicals are used to inhibit (reduce) the detrimental effects of mineral scales on oil and gas as well as other industrial surfaces.
New methods for monitoring scale and corrosion inhibiting water treatment programs have been developed. These new patented methods utilize the measurement of system consumption of actives in the treatment program by fluorescence analysis.'-' The applied dosage of treatment program and the amount of actives available to the system are measured with inert fluorescent tracers added to the treatments.
System consumption of actives is defined as the difference between the amount of actives added and remaining in the system. 2,5- 7 Consumption measurements determine changes in the whole operating system (not a simulated, small portion of the system). Consumption measurements can also be made on individual portions of the system (heat exchangers). Changes in consumption of inhibitors and dispersants can .be related to changes in system operating conditions and performance. Reducing consumption of actives or maintaining consumption within a specified range can be related to optimization of the operation of the cooling system and treatment program.