The NORSOK M-506 is an empirical model based on experiments undertaken in a single phase water flow loop. The data is from experiments with low content of iron ions in the water phase, and the model is thus regarded to give a fair representation of the maximum corrosion rate in a CO2 corrosion controlled system.
Bayesian networks (BN) are useful tools for corrosion modeling. This paper is a case study demonstrating how to perform Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (ICDA) using BN modeling with limited data. A BN model was developed for ICDA of a 50 km refined oil pipeline. Internal corrosion probability of failure along the pipeline was assessed.
Given the need to end our dependence on fossil fuels and invest in alternative sources of energy that are clean, accessible, affordable, sustainable, and reliable, geothermal energy can be a promising choice as a prominent source of energy. Geothermal energy systems are an established renewable energy resource with a long history of adaptable, reliable baseload generation. Conventional geothermal energy systems (GES) in the Western USA can provide almost 30 gigawatt electricity (GWe) of baseload.
Various corrosion prediction tools for CO₂/H₂S corrosion have been developed in the past thirty years. For corrosion analysis in oil and gas production, the water chemistry largely determines the corrosion rate which is mainly driven by in-situ pH.
The in-situ water or brine is pressurized with acid gases (CO₂/H₂S) which results in a decrease in pH and typically an increase in the corrosion rate.
During crack growth and localized corrosion, fresh metal surfaces become exposed to the chemical and electrochemical environment. Subsequent alteration of the material in the nascent pit or at the crack tip zone will be initiated by the surface chemical processes that template the subsequent reactivity. Quantum chemical calculations can provide a physics-based method to simulate the adsorption phenomena that occur in systems possessing multiple chemical species (such as water, chloride, hydrogen-sulfide, inhibitors, etc.), various pH levels, temperatures and electrochemical conditions.