Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) equipment is fabricated by applying layers to build up the required thickness. Peel is a phenomenon peculiar to FRP equipment since the bonded layers could be peeled back at relatively low loads. This paper will cover peel definitions, peel test methods, and peel strengths.
The purpose of surface preparation is to get a required adhesion between steel and the coated film. Adhesion is a significant factor for the suitability and life of protective coatings in corrosive surroundings. In the shipbuilding industry, air blasting with round blasting nozzles is common practice for achieving the productivity and proper surface profile. Generally, the round blasting nozzle cannot evenly spread the abrasive material on a steel surface compared with a rectangular nozzle.
The use of cased carrier pipe for pipelines crossing under highways and railroads has been common practice in the industry. The first cased crossings were made using large-diameter pipe. The carrier pipe was mechanically coupled and pushed through the casing, and the coupling or collars were in direct contact with it. When coatings came into general use, isolating spacers were made of hemp rope saturated with pipe-coating enamel. End seals consisting of either concrete or pipe-coating enamel were poured into each end of the casing. The current practice of installing cased carrier pipe has changed only slightly since the beginning of its use. External loading of the carrier pipe has now been eliminated by the installation of heavy-wall casing pipe, and isolating spacers are used to prevent electrical contact between the casing and the carrier pipe. End seals are used to keep electrolyte (e.g., mud, water) out of the annular space between the carrier pipe and casing.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the largest volume commodity chemical in use today.It plays some part in the production ofnearly all manufactured goods. One large use of concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst for refinery alkylationunits.Intheseunits,C3-C5olefinssuchaspropyleneorbutylenearereactedwithisobutanetoformgasoline-blendingcomponents such as isoheptane and isooctane.These gasoline-blending components are used to boost octane forautomobileandaviationfuels.
Most refineries have an alkylation unit that uses either hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulfuric acid as the alkylation catalyst.Thisstandarddealswithspentsulfuricacidassociatedwiththesulfuricacidalkylationprocessonly.
Army Regulation (AR) 11-42, Army Corrosion Prevention and Control Program, requires that program managers and engineers use a risk-based approach (RBA) to identify the corrosion susceptibility on critical components and the consequence to the overall system. Department of the Army Pamphlet (DA PAM) 11-42 provides an example of generic procedures for conducting a risk-based approach. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed, standardized process for conducting a risk-based approach during CPC planning.