Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) equipment is fabricated by applying layers to build up the required thickness. Peel is a phenomenon peculiar to FRP equipment since the bonded layers could be peeled back at relatively low loads. This paper will cover peel definitions, peel test methods, and peel strengths.
The purpose of surface preparation is to get a required adhesion between steel and the coated film. Adhesion is a significant factor for the suitability and life of protective coatings in corrosive surroundings. In the shipbuilding industry, air blasting with round blasting nozzles is common practice for achieving the productivity and proper surface profile. Generally, the round blasting nozzle cannot evenly spread the abrasive material on a steel surface compared with a rectangular nozzle.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the largest volume commodity chemical in use today.It plays some part in the production ofnearly all manufactured goods. One large use of concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst for refinery alkylationunits.Intheseunits,C3-C5olefinssuchaspropyleneorbutylenearereactedwithisobutanetoformgasoline-blendingcomponents such as isoheptane and isooctane.These gasoline-blending components are used to boost octane forautomobileandaviationfuels.
Most refineries have an alkylation unit that uses either hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulfuric acid as the alkylation catalyst.Thisstandarddealswithspentsulfuricacidassociatedwiththesulfuricacidalkylationprocessonly.